Exploring the Efficacy of Hypoglossal Nerve Monitoring and Stimulation in Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea


  • Wasiq Nadeem Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA; UT Health, San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2194-8488
  • Anum Qayum Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA; Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
  • Rafia H. Jahangiri Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA; Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0009-0009-3210-6612
  • Samar Hasnain Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA; Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9291-9329
  • Mahek Mumtaz Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA.
  • Faisal R. Jahangiri Global Innervation LLC, Dallas, Texas, USA; Department of Neuroscience, School of Behavioral & Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, USA; Labouré College of Healthcare, Milton, Massachusetts, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1342-1977




OSA, apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, hypoglossal nerve, emg


Sleep disorders are a widespread health concern that affects millions of people around the world. Common sleep disorders include insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. Insomnia is characterized by difficulties falling or staying asleep and can be acute or chronic. Obstructive sleep apnea causes repeated breathing pauses during sleep due to airway blockages, which can result in disrupted sleep and daytime sleepiness. Restless legs syndrome causes unpleasant leg sensations and an urge to move them, often at night, disrupting sleep onset. Narcolepsy involves excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks and is caused by a lack of the hypocretin neuropeptide that promotes wakefulness. The treatment of sleep disorders varies depending on the specific condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy is often used to treat insomnia by improving sleep habits and modifying thoughts that interfere with sleep. Medications like benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, or melatonin may also be prescribed temporarily for insomnia. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, which involves wearing a mask and using a machine. Restless legs syndrome is often treated with medications such as dopaminergic agents or opioids. Narcolepsy treatments include wakefulness promoting agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and stimulant medications to manage daytime sleepiness. Innovative treatments like hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) offer a cutting-edge solution for obstructive sleep apnea with a success rate of 75% over five years. HGNS targets the genioglossus muscle, which causes the tongue to protrude and helps alleviate airway obstruction during apneas. This advanced therapy option is highly effective at improving sleep quality and reducing the frequency and severity of OSA symptoms.


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Nadeem W, Qayum A, Jahangiri RH, Hasnain S, Mumtaz M, Jahangiri FR. Exploring the Efficacy of Hypoglossal Nerve Monitoring and Stimulation in the Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J of Neurophysiological Monitoring 2023; 1(1): 61-72.




How to Cite

Nadeem, W., Qayum, A., Jahangiri, R. H., Hasnain, S., Mumtaz, M., & Jahangiri, F. R. (2023). Exploring the Efficacy of Hypoglossal Nerve Monitoring and Stimulation in Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J of Neurophysiological Monitoring, 1(2), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10214346

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